A reference guide to hydrocarbon-related terms, acronyms and abbreviations; CB&I trademarks and licensed processes; and storage-related terminology.

ABack to top

Acetylene
Acetylene, recovery
Acid gas
Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide contained in natural gas and refinery streams; so named because they can cause corrosion
AFIP™

Automatic Foamed-In-Place - CB&I trade name for vessel insulation system

Alkane
Also known as paraffin; hydrocarbon composed of carbon and hydrogen linked together by single bonds without any cyclic structure
AlkyClean®

Solid acid catalyst gasoline alkylation

Alkylation
Refinery process used to produce high-octane gasoline blending stocks
ALMA
Maleic anhydride
Amine
Chemical used as a solvent to remove hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from hydrocarbon streams
Amine Best Practices Group
Industry group organized to develop best practices for hydrocarbon processing units including amine treating, sour water treating, sulfur recovery and tail gas treating units
Aromatics
Group of hydrocarbons of which benzene is the parent; so named because many of their derivatives have sweet or aromatic odors
Asphalt
Highly viscous liquid or semi-solid composed of bitumen and present in most crudes; can be separated from other crude components by fractional distillation; used primarily for road paving and roofing shingles
Atmospheric distillation
See fractional distillation
Autothermal Reforming
Process used to produce hydrogen by using a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming in a single vessel
Avjet
Aviation jet fuel derived from a kerosene fraction; also known as jet

BBack to top

Barrel of Oil Equivalent
A unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel of crude oil
BASF SELOP
Selective hydrogenation of butadiene
Battery Limits
An encompassed area in a chemical plant or refinery that includes the process units with their related utilities and services
BDE
Butadiene extraction
Benzene CDHydro™

Selective hydrogenation of benzene in reformate

Bitumen
Viscous organic liquid; asphalt and tar are the most common forms
Bottoms
Residue remaining in a distillation unit after the highest boiling point material to be distilled has been removed
BTA
Field butanes to motor fuel alkylate (BTA)
Butane
Four-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used as a fuel for cooking and camping, chemical formula C4H10
Butene-1
Polymer grade butene-1

CBack to top

C4/5 Hydro
Total hydrogenation
C4 CDHydro™

C4 selective hydrogenation

C4 Hydro
Total hydrogenation
C4Ac CDHydro™

C4 acetylenes selective hydrogenation

C5 CDHydro™

C5 selective hydrogenation

Cat cracker
See Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
CATADIENE™

Butadiene via C4 dehydrogenation; butylene via C4 dehydrogenation; isoprene via C5 dehydrogenation

Catalyst
A material that aids or promotes a chemical reaction between other substances but does not react itself
Catalytic cracking
Process of breaking up heavier hydrocarbon molecules into lighter hydrocarbon fractions by use of heat and catalysts
Catalytic distillation
Combines reaction and distillation in a single vessel resulting in lower investment and operating costs, as well as process benefits.
CATOFIN™

Propylene via propane dehydro; isobutylene via isobutane dehydro

CD DelB
Butene-2 recovery
CDAcrylamide™

Acrylamide production from acrylonitrile

CDAlky
Gasoline alkylation from refinery or steam cracking C4 feeds
CDAlkyPlus
Converts isobutylene and isobutane to motor fuel alkylate
CDEtbe™

ETBE from refinery C4 feeds

CDEtherol™

TAME from refinery C5 feeds

CDEthers™

MTBE/TAME coproduction from refinery C4/C5 feeds

CDHydro/CDHDS™

FCC gasoline desulfurization

CDHydro/CDHDS™

FCC gasoline desulfurization

CDIB™

Isobutylene from MTBE decomposition

CDIsotame™

Increased TAME from refinery and steam cracker C5 feeds

CDMtbe™

MTBE from steam cracker and dehydro C4 feeds

CDMtbe™

MTBE from refinery C4 feeds

CDOPT
Pretreatment of C4 feed for alklyation
CDSelect
Low cost desulfurization of low-sulfur catalytic naphtha (FCC gasoline desulfurization)
CDTaee™

TAEE from refinery C5 feeds

CDTame™

TAME from refinery C5 feeds

CDTECH EB™

Ethylbenzene via catalytic distillation

Classic Styrene
Styrene
Claus Combustor™

CB&I trade name for high efficiency acid gas burner

Claus Combustor™

CB&I trade name for high efficiency acid gas burner

Coal-To-Liquid
Process used to convert coal to synthetic fuels
Composite Elevated Tank
Elevated water storage tank consisting of a concrete support structure and steel storage tank
Condensates
See Natural Gas Liquids
Continuous Catalyst Regeneration
Refinery process that regenerates spent catalyst used in a catalytic reformer, which converts naphtha feedstock into higher octane gasoline blending stocks
Conversion stock
Commodity material, usually vacuum gas oil or atmospheric gas oil, that is suitable for feedstock to an FCCU or hydrocracker
CPT
Comonomer (butene-1, hexene-1) Production Technology
Crude
Also known as petroleum or crude oil - A mixture of naturally occurring liquid hydrocarbons before refining
Cumene
Cumene

DBack to top

De-ethanizer
A fractionating column designed to remove ethane and gases from heavier hydrocarbons
Debutanizer
A fractionating column used to remove butane and lighter components from liquid streams
Decelerating-Flo™

CB&I trade name for water filtration system

Delayed coking
Process for thermally converting and upgrading heavy residual oil into lighter products and by-product petroleum coke
Depentanizer
A fractionating column used to remove pentane and lighter fractions from hydrocarbon streams
Depropanizer
A fractionating column for removing propane and lighter components from liquid streams
DETOL™

Benzene via aromatics hydrodealkylation

Diesel Hydrotreater
Refinery process unit for clean fuels production
Diethanol Amine (DEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
DiGlycol Amine (DGA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
Diluted crude
Heavy crude oil to which a diluent (thinner) has been added to reduce viscosity and facilitate pipeline flow
Dimer8
Iso-octene and/or iso-octane from refinery C4 feeds
Distillate
The products of distillation formed by condensing vapors
Distillation
A method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture
DMC
Dimethyl carbonate
Downstream
A sector of the petroleum industry that refers to the refining of crude oil, and the products derived from crude oil
DPC
Diphenyl carbonate
DPG™

Dripolene pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation

DPG™

Dripolene pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation

EBack to top

E&P
Exploration & Production; see Upstream.
EBOne
Ethylbenzene via fixed bed alkylation
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Various methods used to enhance production from an oil reservoir
ESD™

Egg-Shaped Digester - CB&I trade name for egg-shaped anaerobic digester (waste water treatment)

Ethane
Two-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon that is the second principal component of natural gas, chemical formula C2H6
Ethanol
Flammable liquid, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, derived from plants and often added to gasoline as an oxygenate to boost octane, enhance combustion and reduce carbon monoxide emissions
Ethylene
A two-carbon building block in the petrochemical industry, used to produce a variety of finished products, including plastics, fibers and resins

FBack to top

FCC
Fluid Catalytic Cracking
FCCU
Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit
Feedstock
Substance used as a raw material in a refining process
FiltraCone™

CB&I trade name for modular water treatment plant

Fire and Gas System
Hardware and software to provide detection, alarms and mediation in the event of an area fire or a toxic or combustible gas release in the refinery
Fixed-Roof Tank
A vertical cylindrical tank with a stationary roof, which can be either a self-supporting or column-supported dome or cone roof
Floating-Roof Tank
A vertical cylindrical tank with a roof that floats on the liquid product surface
Flue gas
Gas that is emitted to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe for transporting exhaust fumes
Fluidized Catalytic Cracking
Refinery process used to convert the heavy portion of crude oil into lighter products, including LPG and gasoline
FPSO
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading - Vessel used by the offshore oil and gas industry to take all of the oil or gas produced from a nearby platform, process it, and store it until the oil or gas can be offloaded
Fraction
A group of hydrocarbons that have similar boiling points
Fractional distillation
Common form of separation technology in hydrocarbon processing plants wherein a mixture (e.g., crude oil) is heated in a large, vertical cylindrical column to separate compounds (fractions) according to their boiling points
Fractionation
The separation of a chemical compound into its component parts
FreshMix™

CB&I trade name for water storage mixing device

GBack to top

Gas Oil Separation Plant
Unit that separates natural gas from crude oil; abbreviated GOSP
Gas Subcooled Process
Natural gas treating process used to recover liquid hydrocarbons
Gas-To-Liquids (GTL)
Process to convert methane-rich gases into liquid fuels
Gasoil
Middle-distillate petroleum fraction; usually includes diesel, kerosene, heating oil and light fuel oil
Gasoline
Petroleum-derived liquid (also known as petrol) used as a transportation fuel
Gasoline Hydrotreating Unit
Refinery process unit for gasoline production
GeorgeBox™

CB&I trade name for sealed liquid sulfur observation port

HBack to top

H2DROGEN™

CB&I trade name for SMR hydrogen production technology

HDSelect
Selective desulfurization of mid-catalytic naphtha
Heat Exchanger
A device, used to transfer heat from a fluid on one side of a barrier to a fluid on the other side without bringing the fluids into direct contact.
Heavy crude
Crude oil with a high proportion of heavy hydrocarbon fractions and metallic content
HeliCarb™

CB&I trade name for water recarbonation system

Hemispheroid™

CB&I trade name for noded spherical pressure vessel

HFIP™

Horizontal Foamed-In-Place - CB&I trade name for vessel insulation system

High Density Polyethylene
A plastic made from petroleum; abbreviated HDPE
HOPS
Heavy Oil Processing System
Hortonsphere™

CB&I trade name for spherical pressure vessel

Hortonspheroid™

CB&I trade name for noded spherical pressure vessel

HotDeck™

CB&I trade name for waste heat boiler modular assembly

HYCO
Synthesis gas containing hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO)
Hydrocarbon
Chemical compound containing hydrogen and carbon used as a fuel, e.g., petroleum, methane, butane
Hydrocracker
The refinery process unit in which hydrocracking occurs
Hydrocracking
Refining process that exposes heavy fuel oil to hydrogen at high pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst to reduce sulfur and produce lighter oils by cracking the heavy oil molecules
Hydrodesulfurization
Refining process that removes sulfur from liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons
Hydropillar™

CB&I trade name for fluted column elevated water storage tank

Hydrotreater
Refinery process unit that removes sulfur and other contaminants from hydrocarbon streams
HYFORMING™

CB&I trade name for SMR hydrogen production technology

IBack to top

I-FCC
Indmax FCC for maximum propylene
ISBL
Inside Battery Limits - Physical boundary in a refinery or other process plant that contains the primary process units
ISOCRACKING™

Hydrocracking mid distillates to light clean fuel products or lube base oils

ISODEWAXING™

Catalytic isomerization of wax to improve base lube oil pour point

ISOFINING™

Mild residue hydrocracking for synthetic crude oils

ISOFINISHING™

Hydrofinishing of base lube oils to improve oxygen stability and color

Isomerization
Refinery process that converts normal paraffins to higher-octane isoparaffins
ISOMPLUS™

Isoamylenes production from normal pentenes

ISOMPLUS™

Isobutylene production from normal butenes

ISOTREATING™

Hydrotreating of naphta and distillates for clean fuels

JBack to top

Jet
See avjet

LBack to top

LB-Fining
MAPD hydrogenation to propylene
LC-FINING™

Residuum hydrocracking

LCN CDHydro™

LCN selective hydrotreating

Light crude
Crude oil with a high proportion of light hydrocarbon fractions and low metallic compounds
Light ends
The more volatile products of petroleum refining, e.g., butane, propane, gasoline
Liquefied Natural Gas
Natural gas cooled to a liquid state; abbreviated LNG
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Pressurized mixture of butane and propane used as fuel; abbreviated LPG
LITOL™

Benzene from coke oven oil

LPR
LP recovery of FCC/coker offgas

MBack to top

MAPD CDHydro™

MAPD selective hydrogenation

Merox™

Licensed refinery process used to remove or convert mercaptans (sulfur compounds)

Metathesis
The exchange of bonds between two reacting chemicals to give two new chemicals. To illustrate, two chemicals, AB and CD, react to give AD and CB.
Methane
Simplest alkane, hydrocarbon that is the largest component of natural gas, chemical formula CH4
Methanol-to-Olefins
A technology used to produce olefins from methanol, an economical alternative to crude oil-derived feedstocks; abbreviated MTO
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
Additive used to increase gasoline octane rating; abbreviated MTBE
Methyldiethanol Amine (MDEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
Mono-Ethanol Amine (MEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
MTO
Methanol to Olefins (recovery section only)
my-term
Here is the definition of my term.

NBack to top

Naphtha
Volatile, colorless product of petroleum distillation, used primarily as a blending stock in gasoline production and feedstock for refining and chemical processes
Naphthenes
One of three basic hydrocarbon classifications found naturally in crude oil; used widely as petrochemical feedstock
Natural Gas

A naturally occurring gas that is colorless, shapeless and odorless in its pure form. Consisting of mostly methane, it must undergo processing to remove other gases such as ethane, propane, butane, pentane, etc.

Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)
Liquids, sometimes called condensates, that are found in unprocessed natural gas, e.g., ethane, propane, butane
Novolen™

Polypropylene

Novolen™

Metalocene (catalyst)

OBack to top

OCR
Counter-current moving bed technology with on-stream catalyst replacement
OCT
Propylene
Octane number
A number indicating the relative antiknock characteristics of gasoline
Oil sands
See tar sands
Olefins
Class of unsaturated double bond linear hydrocarbons recovered from petroleum; examples include ethylene, propylene and butene. Olefins are used to produce a variety of products, including plastics, fibers and rubber.
OSBL
Outside Battery Limits - Areas in a refinery or other process plant outside the primary process units boundary, e.g., utilities, tankage, etc.
Oxygen Injection™

CB&I trade name for direct oxygen diffusion into a combustion chamber

Oxygen Injector™

CB&I trade name for direct oxygen diffusion into a combustion chamber

Oxygenate
Fuel additive (alcohols and ethers) that contain oxygen which can boost gasoline's octane quality, enhance combustion and reduce exhaust emissions
OxyPac™

CB&I trade name for control module for oxygen-enhanced operations

PBack to top

Paraffins
A group of generally saturated single bond linear hydrocarbons; alkane
Partial Oxidation
Exothermic process used to produce hydrogen from hydrocarbons; abbreviated POX
PC Waterspheroid™

CB&I trade name for precast concrete elevated water storage tank

Pentane
Five-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used in the production of polystyrene foam, chemical formula C5H12
Petrochemical
Intermediate chemical derived from petroleum, hydrocarbons liquids or natural gas
Petroleum coke
Also called pet coke; solid carbon fuel derived from oil refinery cracking processes such as delayed coking
Phenol
Phenol
Polypropylene
A thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications, including packaging, textiles, plastic parts and stationery.
PowerTherm™

CB&I trade name for combustion turbine inlet air cooling system

Pressure Swing Adsorption
A method for purifying gas (used in hydrogen production); abbreviated PSA
Pressure Vessel

Container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure (PV). CB&I trade name for this vessel is Hortonsphere®.

Primary Separation Vessel
Elevated cone bottom tank used in oil sands processing; abbreviated PSV
Propane
Three-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used as a fuel for heating and cooking; chemical formula C3H8
Propylene
A three-carbon building block in the petrochemical industry, used to produce a variety of finished products, including plastics, fibers and resins
PYROTOL™

Benzene from pyrolysis gasoline

RBack to top

RCC
Resid Catalytic Cracking
RDS
Residuum hydrotreating
Reformer
Refinery process unit that uses heat and pressure in the presence of a catalyst to convert naphtha feedstock into higher octane gasoline blending stocks; also used for hydrogen production
Reservoir
Flat bottom water storage tank (larger diameter than height)
Residual Fluid Catalytic Cracking
Refinery process used to convert residuals (heavy hydrocarbons) into lighter components, including LPG and gasoline; abbreviated RFCC
Residuals

Heavy fuel oils produced from the non-volatile residue from the fractional distillation process; also called resids

Resulf™

CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology

Resulf-10™

CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology

Resulf-MM™

CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology

Ribbon Flow™

CB&I trade name for water treatment contacting device

SBack to top

Slug catcher
Unit that separates "slugs" of liquids from a natural gas stream
Slurry Optimizer™

CB&I trade name for ClariCone-related device

SMART™

Styrene

SoCool™

CB&I trade name for low temperature thermal stratification fluid

Sour crude
Crude oil with a sulfur content higher than 0.5% by weight; usually requires extra processing; generally has an unpleasant sulfur smell
Sour gas
See acid gas
Stack gas
Anything that comes out of a burner stack in gaseous form, usually consisting of mostly nitrogen and carbon dioxide
Standpipe
Flat bottom water storage tank (larger height than diameter)
Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage
Oil sands extraction process using underground wells to inject steam into oils sands deposits and collect bitumen released by the heat; abbreviated SAGD
Steam Methane Reforming
Endothermic process of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons using steam and a metal-based catalyst; abbreviated SMR
Straight-run
A petroleum product produced by the primary distillation of crude oil, free of cracked components
Strata-Therm™

CB&I trade name for thermal energy storage tank

SulfSep™

CB&I trade name for sulfur entrainment separator

Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU)
Refinery process unit used to convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur using the Claus process
SunDeck™

CB&I trade name for valve and control system for TGTU systems

Sweet crude
Crude oil with a sulfur content less than 0.5% by weight; no sulfur smell
Syncrude
Synthetic crude oil produced from oil sands, primarily in Canada
Syngas
Synthesis Gas - A gas, generally produced from methane, consisting primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; used in refinery and petrochemical applications and as an intermediary step in gas-to-liquids systems

TBack to top

Tail gas
The lightest hydrocarbon gas released from a refining process
Tail Gas Treating Unit (TGTU)
Refinery process unit used to control emissions of sulfur compounds; generally integrated with a sulfur recovery unit
Tar
Viscous black liquid derived from the distillation of organic matter; can be produced from petroleum, peat, wood and coal
Tar sands
Mixture of clay, sand, water and bitumen; also called oil sands
Tension Leg Platform
Vertically moored floating structure used for the offshore production of oil or gas
Thermal Cap™

CB&I trade name for lightweight insulating deck in storage tanks

Thermal cracking
Conversion of heavy oil molecules into lighter fractions by the use of high temperatures without the aid of catalysts
TLE Decoking
Decoking of transferline exchangers

UBack to top

UFR
Up-flow reactor for HDT residue steam with higher contaminate levels
Upstream
A sector of the petroleum industry referring to the searching for, recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas. Also known as the exploration and production sector

VBack to top

Vacuum distillation
Distillation of petroleum under vacuum, which reduces the boiling temperature sufficiently to prevent cracking or decomposition of the feedstock
Vacuum Gas Oil
Product of vacuum distillation; a preferred feedstock for cracking units to produce gasoline; abbreviated VGO
Vapormaster™

CB&I trade name for elastomeric secondary tank roof seal

VaporSleeve™

CB&I trade name for low emission guidepole fitting

Vertical Plate Coke Drum™

CB&I trade name for coke drum design

Visbreaking
Viscosity breaking - A low-temperature cracking process used to reduce the viscosity or pour point of straight-run residuum
Viscosity
Measure of the internal friction or resistance of an oil to flow
VRDS
Vacuum resid hydrotreating

WBack to top

Watersphere™

CB&I trade name for single pedestal elevated water storage tank

Waterspheroid™

CB&I trade name for single pedestal elevated water storage tank

Weathermaster™

CB&I trade name for internal floating roof tank

Wet gas
A gas containing a relatively high proportion of hydrocarbons that are recoverable as liquids

StorageBack to top

Composite Elevated Tank
Elevated water storage tank consisting of a concrete support structure and steel storage tank
Fixed-Roof Tank
A vertical cylindrical tank with a stationary roof, which can be either a self-supporting or column-supported dome or cone roof
Floating-Roof Tank
A vertical cylindrical tank with a roof that floats on the liquid product surface
Pressure Vessel

Container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure (PV). CB&I trade name for this vessel is Hortonsphere®.

Reservoir
Flat bottom water storage tank (larger diameter than height)
Standpipe
Flat bottom water storage tank (larger height than diameter)

HydrocarbonBack to top

Acid gas
Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide contained in natural gas and refinery streams; so named because they can cause corrosion
Alkane
Also known as paraffin; hydrocarbon composed of carbon and hydrogen linked together by single bonds without any cyclic structure
Alkylation
Refinery process used to produce high-octane gasoline blending stocks
Amine
Chemical used as a solvent to remove hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from hydrocarbon streams
Amine Best Practices Group
Industry group organized to develop best practices for hydrocarbon processing units including amine treating, sour water treating, sulfur recovery and tail gas treating units
Aromatics
Group of hydrocarbons of which benzene is the parent; so named because many of their derivatives have sweet or aromatic odors
Asphalt
Highly viscous liquid or semi-solid composed of bitumen and present in most crudes; can be separated from other crude components by fractional distillation; used primarily for road paving and roofing shingles
Atmospheric distillation
See fractional distillation
Autothermal Reforming
Process used to produce hydrogen by using a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming in a single vessel
Avjet
Aviation jet fuel derived from a kerosene fraction; also known as jet
Barrel of Oil Equivalent
A unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel of crude oil
Battery Limits
An encompassed area in a chemical plant or refinery that includes the process units with their related utilities and services
Bitumen
Viscous organic liquid; asphalt and tar are the most common forms
Bottoms
Residue remaining in a distillation unit after the highest boiling point material to be distilled has been removed
Butane
Four-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used as a fuel for cooking and camping, chemical formula C4H10
Cat cracker
See Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
Catalyst
A material that aids or promotes a chemical reaction between other substances but does not react itself
Catalytic cracking
Process of breaking up heavier hydrocarbon molecules into lighter hydrocarbon fractions by use of heat and catalysts
Catalytic distillation
Combines reaction and distillation in a single vessel resulting in lower investment and operating costs, as well as process benefits.
Coal-To-Liquid
Process used to convert coal to synthetic fuels
Condensates
See Natural Gas Liquids
Continuous Catalyst Regeneration
Refinery process that regenerates spent catalyst used in a catalytic reformer, which converts naphtha feedstock into higher octane gasoline blending stocks
Conversion stock
Commodity material, usually vacuum gas oil or atmospheric gas oil, that is suitable for feedstock to an FCCU or hydrocracker
Crude
Also known as petroleum or crude oil - A mixture of naturally occurring liquid hydrocarbons before refining
De-ethanizer
A fractionating column designed to remove ethane and gases from heavier hydrocarbons
Debutanizer
A fractionating column used to remove butane and lighter components from liquid streams
Delayed coking
Process for thermally converting and upgrading heavy residual oil into lighter products and by-product petroleum coke
Depentanizer
A fractionating column used to remove pentane and lighter fractions from hydrocarbon streams
Depropanizer
A fractionating column for removing propane and lighter components from liquid streams
Diesel Hydrotreater
Refinery process unit for clean fuels production
Diethanol Amine (DEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
DiGlycol Amine (DGA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
Diluted crude
Heavy crude oil to which a diluent (thinner) has been added to reduce viscosity and facilitate pipeline flow
Distillate
The products of distillation formed by condensing vapors
Distillation
A method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture
Downstream
A sector of the petroleum industry that refers to the refining of crude oil, and the products derived from crude oil
E&P
Exploration & Production; see Upstream.
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Various methods used to enhance production from an oil reservoir
Ethane
Two-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon that is the second principal component of natural gas, chemical formula C2H6
Ethanol
Flammable liquid, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, derived from plants and often added to gasoline as an oxygenate to boost octane, enhance combustion and reduce carbon monoxide emissions
Ethylene
A two-carbon building block in the petrochemical industry, used to produce a variety of finished products, including plastics, fibers and resins
FCCU
Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit
Feedstock
Substance used as a raw material in a refining process
Fire and Gas System
Hardware and software to provide detection, alarms and mediation in the event of an area fire or a toxic or combustible gas release in the refinery
Flue gas
Gas that is emitted to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe for transporting exhaust fumes
Fluidized Catalytic Cracking
Refinery process used to convert the heavy portion of crude oil into lighter products, including LPG and gasoline
FPSO
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading - Vessel used by the offshore oil and gas industry to take all of the oil or gas produced from a nearby platform, process it, and store it until the oil or gas can be offloaded
Fraction
A group of hydrocarbons that have similar boiling points
Fractional distillation
Common form of separation technology in hydrocarbon processing plants wherein a mixture (e.g., crude oil) is heated in a large, vertical cylindrical column to separate compounds (fractions) according to their boiling points
Fractionation
The separation of a chemical compound into its component parts
Gas Oil Separation Plant
Unit that separates natural gas from crude oil; abbreviated GOSP
Gas Subcooled Process
Natural gas treating process used to recover liquid hydrocarbons
Gas-To-Liquids (GTL)
Process to convert methane-rich gases into liquid fuels
Gasoil
Middle-distillate petroleum fraction; usually includes diesel, kerosene, heating oil and light fuel oil
Gasoline
Petroleum-derived liquid (also known as petrol) used as a transportation fuel
Gasoline Hydrotreating Unit
Refinery process unit for gasoline production
Heat Exchanger
A device, used to transfer heat from a fluid on one side of a barrier to a fluid on the other side without bringing the fluids into direct contact.
Heavy crude
Crude oil with a high proportion of heavy hydrocarbon fractions and metallic content
High Density Polyethylene
A plastic made from petroleum; abbreviated HDPE
HYCO
Synthesis gas containing hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO)
Hydrocarbon
Chemical compound containing hydrogen and carbon used as a fuel, e.g., petroleum, methane, butane
Hydrocracker
The refinery process unit in which hydrocracking occurs
Hydrocracking
Refining process that exposes heavy fuel oil to hydrogen at high pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst to reduce sulfur and produce lighter oils by cracking the heavy oil molecules
Hydrodesulfurization
Refining process that removes sulfur from liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons
Hydrotreater
Refinery process unit that removes sulfur and other contaminants from hydrocarbon streams
ISBL
Inside Battery Limits - Physical boundary in a refinery or other process plant that contains the primary process units
Isomerization
Refinery process that converts normal paraffins to higher-octane isoparaffins
Jet
See avjet
Light crude
Crude oil with a high proportion of light hydrocarbon fractions and low metallic compounds
Light ends
The more volatile products of petroleum refining, e.g., butane, propane, gasoline
Liquefied Natural Gas
Natural gas cooled to a liquid state; abbreviated LNG
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Pressurized mixture of butane and propane used as fuel; abbreviated LPG
Merox™

Licensed refinery process used to remove or convert mercaptans (sulfur compounds)

Metathesis
The exchange of bonds between two reacting chemicals to give two new chemicals. To illustrate, two chemicals, AB and CD, react to give AD and CB.
Methane
Simplest alkane, hydrocarbon that is the largest component of natural gas, chemical formula CH4
Methanol-to-Olefins
A technology used to produce olefins from methanol, an economical alternative to crude oil-derived feedstocks; abbreviated MTO
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
Additive used to increase gasoline octane rating; abbreviated MTBE
Methyldiethanol Amine (MDEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
Mono-Ethanol Amine (MEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
Naphtha
Volatile, colorless product of petroleum distillation, used primarily as a blending stock in gasoline production and feedstock for refining and chemical processes
Naphthenes
One of three basic hydrocarbon classifications found naturally in crude oil; used widely as petrochemical feedstock
Natural Gas

A naturally occurring gas that is colorless, shapeless and odorless in its pure form. Consisting of mostly methane, it must undergo processing to remove other gases such as ethane, propane, butane, pentane, etc.

Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)
Liquids, sometimes called condensates, that are found in unprocessed natural gas, e.g., ethane, propane, butane
Octane number
A number indicating the relative antiknock characteristics of gasoline
Oil sands
See tar sands
Olefins
Class of unsaturated double bond linear hydrocarbons recovered from petroleum; examples include ethylene, propylene and butene. Olefins are used to produce a variety of products, including plastics, fibers and rubber.
OSBL
Outside Battery Limits - Areas in a refinery or other process plant outside the primary process units boundary, e.g., utilities, tankage, etc.
Oxygenate
Fuel additive (alcohols and ethers) that contain oxygen which can boost gasoline's octane quality, enhance combustion and reduce exhaust emissions
Paraffins
A group of generally saturated single bond linear hydrocarbons; alkane
Partial Oxidation
Exothermic process used to produce hydrogen from hydrocarbons; abbreviated POX
Pentane
Five-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used in the production of polystyrene foam, chemical formula C5H12
Petrochemical
Intermediate chemical derived from petroleum, hydrocarbons liquids or natural gas
Petroleum coke
Also called pet coke; solid carbon fuel derived from oil refinery cracking processes such as delayed coking
Polypropylene
A thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications, including packaging, textiles, plastic parts and stationery.
Pressure Swing Adsorption
A method for purifying gas (used in hydrogen production); abbreviated PSA
Primary Separation Vessel
Elevated cone bottom tank used in oil sands processing; abbreviated PSV
Propane
Three-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used as a fuel for heating and cooking; chemical formula C3H8
Propylene
A three-carbon building block in the petrochemical industry, used to produce a variety of finished products, including plastics, fibers and resins
Reformer
Refinery process unit that uses heat and pressure in the presence of a catalyst to convert naphtha feedstock into higher octane gasoline blending stocks; also used for hydrogen production
Residual Fluid Catalytic Cracking
Refinery process used to convert residuals (heavy hydrocarbons) into lighter components, including LPG and gasoline; abbreviated RFCC
Residuals

Heavy fuel oils produced from the non-volatile residue from the fractional distillation process; also called resids

Slug catcher
Unit that separates "slugs" of liquids from a natural gas stream
Sour crude
Crude oil with a sulfur content higher than 0.5% by weight; usually requires extra processing; generally has an unpleasant sulfur smell
Sour gas
See acid gas
Stack gas
Anything that comes out of a burner stack in gaseous form, usually consisting of mostly nitrogen and carbon dioxide
Steam Methane Reforming
Endothermic process of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons using steam and a metal-based catalyst; abbreviated SMR
Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage
Oil sands extraction process using underground wells to inject steam into oils sands deposits and collect bitumen released by the heat; abbreviated SAGD
Straight-run
A petroleum product produced by the primary distillation of crude oil, free of cracked components
Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU)
Refinery process unit used to convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur using the Claus process
Sweet crude
Crude oil with a sulfur content less than 0.5% by weight; no sulfur smell
Syncrude
Synthetic crude oil produced from oil sands, primarily in Canada
Syngas
Synthesis Gas - A gas, generally produced from methane, consisting primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; used in refinery and petrochemical applications and as an intermediary step in gas-to-liquids systems
Tail gas
The lightest hydrocarbon gas released from a refining process
Tail Gas Treating Unit (TGTU)
Refinery process unit used to control emissions of sulfur compounds; generally integrated with a sulfur recovery unit
Tar
Viscous black liquid derived from the distillation of organic matter; can be produced from petroleum, peat, wood and coal
Tar sands
Mixture of clay, sand, water and bitumen; also called oil sands
Tension Leg Platform
Vertically moored floating structure used for the offshore production of oil or gas
Thermal cracking
Conversion of heavy oil molecules into lighter fractions by the use of high temperatures without the aid of catalysts
Upstream
A sector of the petroleum industry referring to the searching for, recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas. Also known as the exploration and production sector
Vacuum distillation
Distillation of petroleum under vacuum, which reduces the boiling temperature sufficiently to prevent cracking or decomposition of the feedstock
Vacuum Gas Oil
Product of vacuum distillation; a preferred feedstock for cracking units to produce gasoline; abbreviated VGO
Visbreaking
Viscosity breaking - A low-temperature cracking process used to reduce the viscosity or pour point of straight-run residuum
Viscosity
Measure of the internal friction or resistance of an oil to flow
Wet gas
A gas containing a relatively high proportion of hydrocarbons that are recoverable as liquids

CB&I TrademarksBack to top

AFIP™

Automatic Foamed-In-Place - CB&I trade name for vessel insulation system

Claus Combustor™

CB&I trade name for high efficiency acid gas burner

CrossLink™

CB&I trade name for water filtration device

Decelerating-Flo™

CB&I trade name for water filtration system

ESD™

Egg-Shaped Digester - CB&I trade name for egg-shaped anaerobic digester (waste water treatment)

FiltraCone™

CB&I trade name for modular water treatment plant

FreshMix™

CB&I trade name for water storage mixing device

GeorgeBox™

CB&I trade name for sealed liquid sulfur observation port

H2DROGEN™

CB&I trade name for SMR hydrogen production technology

HeliCarb™

CB&I trade name for water recarbonation system

Hemispheroid™

CB&I trade name for noded spherical pressure vessel

HFIP™

Horizontal Foamed-In-Place - CB&I trade name for vessel insulation system

Hortonsphere™

CB&I trade name for spherical pressure vessel

Hortonspheroid™

CB&I trade name for noded spherical pressure vessel

HotDeck™

CB&I trade name for waste heat boiler modular assembly

Hydropillar™

CB&I trade name for fluted column elevated water storage tank

HYFORMING™

CB&I trade name for SMR hydrogen production technology

Oxygen Injection™

CB&I trade name for direct oxygen diffusion into a combustion chamber

Oxygen Injector™

CB&I trade name for direct oxygen diffusion into a combustion chamber

OxyPac™

CB&I trade name for control module for oxygen-enhanced operations

PC Waterspheroid™

CB&I trade name for precast concrete elevated water storage tank

PowerTherm™

CB&I trade name for combustion turbine inlet air cooling system

Resulf-10™

CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology

Resulf-MM™

CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology

Resulf™

CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology

Ribbon Flow™

CB&I trade name for water treatment contacting device

Slurry Optimizer™

CB&I trade name for ClariCone-related device

SoCool™

CB&I trade name for low temperature thermal stratification fluid

Strata-Therm™

CB&I trade name for thermal energy storage tank

SulfSep™

CB&I trade name for sulfur entrainment separator

SunDeck™

CB&I trade name for valve and control system for TGTU systems

Thermal Cap™

CB&I trade name for lightweight insulating deck in storage tanks

Vapormaster™

CB&I trade name for elastomeric secondary tank roof seal

VaporSleeve™

CB&I trade name for low emission guidepole fitting

Vertical Plate Coke Drum™

CB&I trade name for coke drum design

Watersphere™

CB&I trade name for single pedestal elevated water storage tank

Waterspheroid™

CB&I trade name for single pedestal elevated water storage tank

Weathermaster™

CB&I trade name for internal floating roof tank

Licensed ProcessesBack to top

Acetylene
Acetylene, recovery
AlkyClean®

Solid acid catalyst gasoline alkylation

ALMA
Maleic anhydride
BASF SELOP
Selective hydrogenation of butadiene
BDE
Butadiene extraction
Benzene CDHydro™

Selective hydrogenation of benzene in reformate

BTA
Field butanes to motor fuel alkylate (BTA)
Butene-1
Polymer grade butene-1
C4 CDHydro™

C4 selective hydrogenation

C4 Hydro
Total hydrogenation
C4/5 Hydro
Total hydrogenation
C4Ac CDHydro™

C4 acetylenes selective hydrogenation

C5 CDHydro™

C5 selective hydrogenation

CATADIENE™

Butadiene via C4 dehydrogenation; butylene via C4 dehydrogenation; isoprene via C5 dehydrogenation

CATOFIN™

Propylene via propane dehydro; isobutylene via isobutane dehydro

CD DelB
Butene-2 recovery
CDAcrylamide™

Acrylamide production from acrylonitrile

CDAlky
Gasoline alkylation from refinery or steam cracking C4 feeds
CDAlkyPlus
Converts isobutylene and isobutane to motor fuel alkylate
CDEtbe™

ETBE from refinery C4 feeds

CDEtherol™

TAME from refinery C5 feeds

CDEthers™

MTBE/TAME coproduction from refinery C4/C5 feeds

CDHydro/CDHDS™

FCC gasoline desulfurization

CDHydro/CDHDS™

FCC gasoline desulfurization

CDIB™

Isobutylene from MTBE decomposition

CDIsotame™

Increased TAME from refinery and steam cracker C5 feeds

CDMtbe™

MTBE from refinery C4 feeds

CDMtbe™

MTBE from steam cracker and dehydro C4 feeds

CDOPT
Pretreatment of C4 feed for alklyation
CDSelect
Low cost desulfurization of low-sulfur catalytic naphtha (FCC gasoline desulfurization)
CDTaee™

TAEE from refinery C5 feeds

CDTame™

TAME from refinery C5 feeds

CDTECH EB™

Ethylbenzene via catalytic distillation

Classic Styrene
Styrene
CPT
Comonomer (butene-1, hexene-1) Production Technology
Cumene
Cumene
DETOL™

Benzene via aromatics hydrodealkylation

Dimer8
Iso-octene and/or iso-octane from refinery C4 feeds
DMC
Dimethyl carbonate
DPC
Diphenyl carbonate
DPG™

Dripolene pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation

DPG™

Dripolene pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation

EBOne
Ethylbenzene via fixed bed alkylation
FCC
Fluid Catalytic Cracking
HDSelect
Selective desulfurization of mid-catalytic naphtha
HOPS
Heavy Oil Processing System
I-FCC
Indmax FCC for maximum propylene
ISOCRACKING™

Hydrocracking mid distillates to light clean fuel products or lube base oils

ISODEWAXING™

Catalytic isomerization of wax to improve base lube oil pour point

ISOFINING™

Mild residue hydrocracking for synthetic crude oils

ISOFINISHING™

Hydrofinishing of base lube oils to improve oxygen stability and color

ISOMPLUS™

Isobutylene production from normal butenes

ISOMPLUS™

Isoamylenes production from normal pentenes

ISOTREATING™

Hydrotreating of naphta and distillates for clean fuels

LB-Fining
MAPD hydrogenation to propylene
LC-FINING™

Residuum hydrocracking

LCN CDHydro™

LCN selective hydrotreating

LITOL™

Benzene from coke oven oil

LPR
LP recovery of FCC/coker offgas
MAPD CDHydro™

MAPD selective hydrogenation

MTO
Methanol to Olefins (recovery section only)
Novolen™

Polypropylene

Novolen™

Metalocene (catalyst)

OCR
Counter-current moving bed technology with on-stream catalyst replacement
OCT
Propylene
Phenol
Phenol
PYROTOL™

Benzene from pyrolysis gasoline

RCC
Resid Catalytic Cracking
RDS
Residuum hydrotreating
SMART™

Styrene

TLE Decoking
Decoking of transferline exchangers
UFR
Up-flow reactor for HDT residue steam with higher contaminate levels
VRDS
Vacuum resid hydrotreating