Reactor Effluent Air Cooler Safety through design
PTQ, 4 Q 2013 and www.eptq.com. Eric Lin and Peter Risse of Chevron Lummus Global discuss how quality-controlled replacement of carbon steel with Duplex 2205 for revamps can increase the service life and reliability of the REAC in the high-pressure loop.
Stress Analysis of Pipe Support Attachments
ASME 2013 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference, Paris, France. CB&I’s Anindya Bhattacharya, Technical Head, Stress Analysis, reviews simple analytical methods like ring loading around a circumference or more complex methods based on their theoretical background, their range of applicability with respect to the typical design parameters and their comparison with FE analysis.
Crude unit heat exchanger
PTQ Sour & Heavy 2012 Supplement and www.eptq.com. Tony Barletta and Steve White, Process Consulting Services, and Krishnan Chunangad, Lummus Technology Heat Transfer, discuss the importance of a well-designed crude and vacuum unit heat exchanger unit to meet product yield, product quality, unit reliability and crude processing flexibility objectives when processing heavy crude.
Seismic Design of Structural Steel Pipe Racks
Structure Magazine, February 2012. Richard M. Drake, Fluor; and Robert J. Walter, CB&I, discuss structural performance issues relative to extreme events. The article was originally published in the Engineering Journal (AISC), 4th Quarter, 2011, and has been condensed and reprinted with permission.
A comparison of simple analytical methods for evaluating local stresses at pipe support attachments
NAFEMS UK Conference 2012, May 30 - 31, 2012, Lincolnshire, UK. CB&I's Anindya Bhattacharya, Principal Engineer, reviews stress analysis of piping systems with reference to the results of shell based finite element analysis and stress classification on the guidelines of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Sec VII Division 2.
New NGL-recovery process provides viable alternative
Oil and Gas Journal, January 9, 2012. Robert R. Huebel and Michael G. Malsam of Randall Gas Technologies review the fundamentals of the IPOR (IsoPressure Open Refrigeration) process, including process features, benefits, and applications. The paper presents case studies comparing process performance with both straight refrigeration and advanced turboexpander cycles and economic analysis.
Refinery configurations for maximising middle distillates
PTQ, 3Q2011. Arun Arora and Ujjal Mukherjee of Chevron Lummus Global present a comparison of configurations for upgrading residual oil products for the maximum production of diesel to help refiners to economically meet the new stringent environmental specifications.
A Finite Element-based Study on Stress Intensification Factors (SIF) for Reinforced Fabricated Tees
NAFEMS World Congress 2011, May 23-26, 2011, Boston, Massachusets. Stress Intensification Factors used in ASME Piping codes B31 relate to fatigue failure. CB&I’s Anindya Bhattacharya, Senior Engineer, attempts to compute these factors for Reinforced Fabricated Tees using Finite Element Method and Elastic Stress Categorization route of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code SEC VIII Div 2.
Convert bottom-of-the-barrel into diesel and light olefins
Hydrocarbon Processing, February 2011. Rama Rao and Gary Sieli of Lummus Technology, and Debasis Bhattacharyya of Indian Oil Corporation discuss the integration of residue hydrocracking operations with advanced fluid catalytic cracking to optimize the upgrade of heavy crude oils.
Construction in Colombia
Hydrocarbon Engineering, September 2010. Masoud Deidehban, CB&I, U.S., and Orlando Cabrales, Refineria de Cartagena S.A., Colombia, describe the expansion of the REFICAR refinery in Colombia. The US$3.8 billion project is considered one of the largest industrial projects ever taken in Colombia, and CB&I is serving as the single integrated contractor with responsibility for the complete engineering, procurement and construction.
Safer with Sulfur
Hydrocarbon Engineering, September 2010. In this article, Will Cross, Chris Kapraun, Todd Vogt and Maurice Korpelshoek of CDTECH consider alternatives for HF alkylation. The results of an engineering study that CDTECH undertook to evaluate the feasibility of converting an HF alkylation unit to a CDAlky®sulfuric acid alkylation unit are discussed in the article.
Techniques for Joining 1 1/4 CR- 1/2 Mo Steels
Welding Journal, April 2010. James Brennan and Ben Pletcher of CB&I's steel plate structures business segment discuss the challenges addressed by the advancements in the processes used for manufacturing welding consumables, and the options now available for welding Cr-Mo materials.
Keeping it Clean without Affecting Quality
Hydrocarbon Engineering, July 2010, Maurice Korpelshoek, Kerry Rock, and Rajesh Samarth of CDTECH discuss sulfur reduction in FCC gasoline without octane loss. An option to enable the refiner to offset the octane loss in the FCC gasoline is to produce ethers from the contained light olefins. CDTECH has developed technologies that have been commercially applied for this purpose.
A Finite Element-based Investigation on Stress Intensification and Flexibility Factors for Pipe Bend
NAFEMS Conference, June 1, 2010, Oxford, UK. CB&I’s Anindya Bhattacharya, Senior Engineer (Stress Analysis), and Daniel Long, Technical Head – Pipe Stress Engineering, investigate pipe bends for stress intensification and flexibility factors using shell-based finite element analysis for cases that are both within and outside the geometric limits provided by piping codes. The method for computation will be applying a moment at the free end of the geometry and comparing the magnitude of the stress developed at the fitting to that of the nominal stress of the pipe.
Simple, lower cost LNG production
LNG Industry, Spring 2010. In this article Paul Bridgwood, LNG Limited, and Don Hill of CB&I Lummus discuss a new, low-cost, highly efficient LNG liquefaction process that uses simple, proven and low risk technology that may benefit many future LNG projects. The process is based on a single mixed refrigerant cycle with the additional of conventional ammonia refrigeration, and combined heat and power technology, which significantly enhance performance.
Monitoring Coke Drum Essentials
Hydrocarbon Engineering, February 2010. Al Faegh and John Collins, CB&I Lummus, discuss key performance indicators of delayed coking units. Monitoring critical performance parameters during the quenching/cooling operation before opening the coke drum to the atmosphere allows appropriate precautions to be taken to ensure safety.
Efficient Operations at Peak Times
LNG Industry, Winter 2009. Eric Frey, Brian Eisentrout, and Jan Snyder of CB&I discuss how changes in natural gas composition have caused problems for the LNG peak shaving industry. Various solutions are presented to deal with gas quality issues for both peak shaving plants and LNG regasification terminals.
Doing Wonders For Diesel Production
Hydrocarbon Engineering, November 2009. Gary Podrebarac, Rajesh Samarth and Kerry Rock, CDTECH, USA, discuss the recent trend in refining of using more heavy naphtha to increase diesel production as it becomes more attractive for refiners. CDTECH's FCC naphtha desulfurization technology gives the refiner more flexibility to maximize diesel production through the ability to produce low sulfur heavy cat naphtha as a separate product for the diesel blending pool.
Modularizing Containment Vessels in New Nuclear Power Plants
Power, November 2009. Lee Presley and Barbara Weber of CB&I discuss the advantages of using modularization in the construction of nuclear containment vessels to control both cost and schedule when building next generation nuclear power plants. The analysis that must be performed to evaluate modularization as an option is described, as well as considerations for realizing the optimal benefits of this construction technique.
Cashing in with Catalysts
Hydrocarbon Engineering, November 2009. Alexander Jimenez of Chevron Lummus Global LLC discusses the shift in demand from gasoline to diesel and the impact of this trend on refiners. The article describes how advances in hydrocracking technology over the past few years afford refiners a cost-effective solution for producing high quality distillate products from heavier feedstocks.
Executing Peru’s largest industrial project safely and on schedule
Petroleum Economist - World Gas 2009. Don Hill, Peter Rano, Gerald Humphrey and Martin Mayer of CB&I Lummus and Shanmuk Sharma of PERU LNG discuss some of the challenges involved in building South America's first baseload LNG liquefaction plant, including work force training, seismic design considerations and logistics.
CB&I Lummus and Partners to turn LNG FPSO Concept into a Reality
LNG Journal, September 2009. Leo Festen, Jos Leo and Ron Vis, CB&I Lummus, discuss CB&I's work to take LNG FPSO from concept to reality. Design considerations are evaluated, including the FPSO layout, gas treating system, type of LNG tank, liquefaction process, and other factors.
Catalytic Cracking Process Enhances Production of Olefins
PTQ , Quarter 4 2009. Dalip Soni and M Rama Rao, Lummus Technology, and G Saidulu, D Bhattacharyya and V K Satheesh with Indian Oil Corporation discuss approaches to increasing the production of olefins with catalytic cracking. Numerous techniques are explored including catalyst formulation, hardware design and operating strategy.
A Winning Combination
Hydrocarbon Engineering, September 2009. Gary M. Sieli, Lummus Technology, USA and Nash Gupta, Chevron Lummus Global LLC, USA discuss delayed coking and LC-FINING ebullated bed hydrocracker technology. This article describes the advantages refineries with these residue upgrading technologies have, especially when used in combination, in terms of improving profitability by having the capacity to handle heavier, higher sulfur crude feedstocks.
Coker Design Achieves Cycle Times, Throughput Needs at Kansas Refinery
Oil and Gas Journal, August 3, 2009. Don Mulraney and Art Stefani, CB&I, with Coby Stewart, Frontier Refining, discuss a state-of-the-art delayed coking system that was installed at Frontier's refinery in Kansas, USA. The article describes the scope of the project, including the proprietary CB&I technology and third-party technologies that were utilized to expand coking capacity and enhance operator safety.
Advances in Delayed Coking Heat Transfer Equipment
Hydrocarbon Processing, February 2009. In this article, experts in heat transfer and delayed coking from Lummus Technology discuss how advances in delayed coking heater design are enabling refiners to process higher volumes of vacuum residue through their delayed coking units.
Hydrocarbon Engineering, February 2009. Olefins producers face challenges in the coming decade stemming from higher raw material costs and stricter environmental regulations. In this article, Stephen Stanley discusses how changing the ethylene process chemistry downstream of the pyrolysis module can lead to improved return on investment..
Value Engineering in an Escalating Business Environment
NPRA Annual Meeting, March 9-11, 2008, San Diego, CA. In this presentation David Nash, Principal Process Engineer, explains factors in the current business environment that have led to price escalation of services in the hydrocarbon processing industry. The paper proposes value engineering as one solution to rising project costs and provides a number of real-world examples that explain lessons learned and strategic considerations for successful value engineering.
Cost Effective Solutions for Reduction of Benzene in Gasoline
NPRA Annual Meeting, March 9-11, 2008, San Diego, CA. CDTECH's Kerry L. Rock, Maarten J. Almering and Arvids Judzis explore how reducing benzene in gasoline is a cost-effective sidestream solution found in the quest for producing cleaner fuel. The article introduces the Benzene CDHydro process which provides the most cost-effective method of benzene reduction available to refiners from conventional technology.
Nuclear Power: Preparing for the Industry Resurgence
World Energy, Vol. 10 No. 4, published this article in which Jim Bollweg, Executive Vice President - Project Operations, outlines some of the steps engineering and construction contractors will need to take to support the expected growth in construction of new nuclear power generation facilities. The article looks at market factors that are driving the nuclear renaissance; new trends in nuclear plant development such as passive designs and modular construction; and the necessity for contractors to develop nuclear grade policies and systems.
Increasing Refinery Biofuels Production
PTQ Catalysis, 2008, published this article written by Kerry L. Rock, Director, Technology at CDTECH in Houston and Maurice Korpelshoek, License Business Development Manager at CDTECH in The Hague, The Netherlands. With demands to increase the production of biofuels, refiners are evaluating options to meet the mandates. This article examines the benefits of producing bio-ethers compared to blending bioethanol for the total European gas pool. Economics for optimum biofuels operation are presented to help determine the most cost-effective option to meet implementation targets.
Is Modularization Right for Your Project?
Hydrocarbon Processing, December 2007. Modular construction is the process of engineering and fabricating construction projects into shippable packages or segments that can be installed economically and logistically at the permanent site. In this article, Patrick Jameson provides a framework for evaluating the economic viability of modularization versus stick-built (or onsite) construction, using a gasoil hydrotreater project as a case study.
CB&I Helps the UK Build Up LNG Import Network and Storage Capacity
LNG Journal, November/ December 2007. In response to predicted shortfalls in domestic natural gas supply, the United Kingdom has created a more liberalized gas market. Some suppliers are developing liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals and storage facilities to bring gas to the UK. In this article, Peter Bennett, Mike Whitney and Barbara Weber discuss two LNG projects in the UK -- South Hook and Isle of Grain.
Optimize Your Hydrogen Plant Operations
Hydrocarbon Processing, September 2007. Due to the worldwide demand for hydrogen, it has become important for refiners to maintain, or in some cases, increase the hydrogen production from their existing hydrogen plants. According to this article written by Greg Shumake and Andy Coleman, proper plant monitoring is essential to achieving this objective. There are several areas to focus on when monitoring the performance of a hydrogen plant. Particular areas of interest include the feedstock, catalyst, reformer and steam system.
When the Going Gets Tough
Hydrocarbon Engineering, June 2007, published this article in which Tom Landon and Jon Lee discuss how to improve the toughness of high heat input welded vertical joints. They concluded that by using enhanced techniques and materials, the weld metal and HAZ toughness of vertical welds in carbon steel flat bottom storage tanks made with the EGW process can be significantly improved.
Nurturing and Expanding Engineering Resources
Hydrocarbon Processing, May 2007. Developing, maintaining and expanding an experienced engineering team during vigorous economic growth can be difficult due to competing incentives in the job market. This article identifies the factors that need to be properly addressed to support the ongoing evolution of a high-performance engineering team. It concludes that a targeted approach to hiring and managing engineering personnel can help companies retain their valuable engineering resources and avoid many of the pitfalls that can lead to cycles of rebuilding the team from the ground up.
How to Make Safety a Part of Your Corporate Culture
World Energy, No. 1 - 2007, published this article in which John Redmon, Executive Vice President of Operations, explains how companies can achieve an accident free workplace. To do this, a company's HSE training program must focus on behavior-based safety and the causes of incidents rather than the accidents that have already taken place. The article uses CB&I's Total Involvement of Employees program as an example of how behavior-based safety can become a part of the entire company's corporate culture.
An Engineering Benchmark
Fundamentals of the Global LNG Industry 2007, Petroleum Economist. This article, written by Peter Rano, Senior Vice President and Executive Project Manager, focuses on CB&I's work on the fourth production train at the Bonny Island LNG facility, which is operated by Nigeria LNG Limited. It examines some of the techniques CB&I used to meet the logistical and workforce challenges associated with bringing the Bonny Island production train online, as well as how these practices can be applied to other large-scope projects.
World Pipelines, March 2007, published this article in which Gurdial Singh and Michael Moore of CB&I UK Limited discuss reducing the cost of onshore pipeline systems. The article is based on a joint study conducted by BP and CB&I. They concluded that the cost of pipeline facilities can be greatly reduced by a combination of eliminating standby machines, remotely operating pipeline stations and developing modularized components. The reasons and details behind these conclusions are contained in the article.
LNG Terminal Expansion Moves to Forefront of Contract Tender Action
LNG Journal, February 2007, published this article in which Brian Eisentrout, Process Design Manager, examines the design issues that existing and prospective terminal operators should consider for any terminal expansion. These issues include the simultaneous unloading of multiple ships, larger LNG carriers, the addition of alternative LNG and natural gas distribution systems, technology improvements, BTU reduction, new sources of LNG supply, and possible co-generation facilities. Originally presented at the 2006 Gastech Conference and Exhibition in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Coke Drum Design: Reliability Through Innovation
PTQ, 3Q 2006. This article examines the theories behind coke drum failure and demonstrates ways of improving their reliability such as installing CB&I’s vertical plate technology, which eliminates the circumferential weld seams in the area prone to distortion and cracking. In addition, the paper includes a description of the new skirt attachments that have been developed for coke drums, as well as an economic case for implementing the vertical plate design. This article was previously presented at the NPRA Annual Meeting in March 2006.
Study Focuses on Six LNG Regasification Systems
LNG Journal, July/August 2006. The energy costs associated with regasifying LNG for delivery to a natural gas pipeline is one of the most significant things to consider when designing and constructing an import terminal. This article focuses on a study CB&I recently conducted to determine which regasification system would be the most economical given the operational features of the terminal, as well as the delivery system available to reach its markets. The regasification systems evaluated in this study were: fired heaters with water/ethylene glycol (WEG) intermediate fluid, submerged combustion vaporizers, sea water vaporizers with open rack, heating towers with intermediate water, gas turbine generators with waste heat recovery units and steam turbine generator cycle (Rankine Cycle).
Meeting Energy Demand with Off-site Modularization
World Energy, No. 2 – 2006. This article examines the advantages of modularization and how it can help contractors to optimize their existing resources while continuing to build new oil and gas facilities in a timely and economical manner. In addition, the article discusses some of the drawbacks associated with off-site construction, as well as what important issues must be examined by the owner and contractor in order to determine the degree of modular construction that should be implemented. The prequalifications needed by a contractor – such as fabrication shop capacity, access to transportation and experience – are also discussed.
Hydrocarbon Engineering, February 2006, published this article which highlights the challenges faced by the project team in designing and building storage tanks and spheres for the Sohar Refinery in Oman, including meeting the requirements for local content, training the local crews, getting materials to the site on time, and staying on schedule even when materials were late. The article further describes the solutions developed to address these challenges, which resulted in such benefits as project cost savings and the presence of a trained workforce for future projects in Oman.
Hydrocarbon Engineering, February 2006, published this article which examines steam methane reforming (SMR) based hydrogen plants and the design nuances that are now typically a part of designing a modern hydrogen plant. Factors to consider include the capability to handle multiple feedstocks, setting an export steam amount that will fit within a refinery's steam balance, and controlling the export steam purity.